ADDITIVE: Substance that is added to an ink to change its initial properties.
BREAK AWAY: The action of the screen mesh raising off of the substrate immediately after the squeegee passes. If the screen sticks to the substrate, some of the ink might not totally release from the screen causing a "mesh Mark" or blurring.
CAPILLARY FILM: Direct emulsion machine coated on a clear film carrier. This allows for a very smooth emulsion with very accurate emulsion film thickness. The coated emulsion is transferred to a blank screen with water or emulsion.
CATALYST: Chemical product that makes it possible to accelerate or complete the polymerization of a compound.
COVERAGE: Ability of an ink to cover or superimpose its own color over that on which it has been printed.
CROCK FASTNESS: The resistance of transfer of colorant from the surface of a colored yarn or fabric to another surface, or to an adjacent area of the same fabric, principally by rubbing. For pigment especially, crock fastness is of concern. Pigment particles sit on top of the fibers held in place by a resin (the pretreatment). Crock fastness determines if there is acceptable rub resistance of the pigment to friction.
CURER: Generic name by which additives for improving washing resistance of water based textile inks, are known. Normally, they are compounds based on urea-formaldehyde resins.
DEGREASING: Removal of grease material before fabricating the screen frame. Degreasing will help to improve the curing of the screen emulsion.
DIAZO: A photosensitive chemical or process by which screen printing emulsions are made sensitive to actinic light; characterized by its controlled definition, low toxicity and useful life.
DUROMETER: A measure of hardness used in describing squeegee stiffness. Typical squeegees are offered in durometers of 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, and 90. The higher the number, the stiffer the squeegee. The most popular are in the 60 to 80 range. 70 to 75 are most commonly used with softer degrees primarily for textile and harder degrees for graphic, UV, and three dimensional printing.
DISPERSION: A uniform suspension of fine, solid materials in a liquid medium.
DPI: Dots per inch; refers to the definition of digital or computer printing (arranged).
DUROMETER: A measurement of the hardness of a material, that is, it’s resistance to permanent indentation. In screen printing, this term is used to define the hardness of the squeegee rubber typically made with silicone rubber. Dual or multiple DUROMETER is used when the squeegee rubber is made with different rubber compositions to get multiple end performance parameters.
DYE: A coloring material that can be dissolved in a solvent or water. Sometimes used in conjunction with pigment. Generally not as light fast as pigments.
FISHEYE: A flaw in an emulsion coated screen that results in a generally circular thinning defect of points in the emulsion film, which are the result of dust on the screen fabric, insufficient degreasing of the screen or insufficient emulsion sensitizer mixture.
FRAME: Frame support for silk screen printing It is understood to be fabricated from finished tubing, which has the function of subjecting the fabric to a strong tension. The frame must resist mechanical deformation whilst forming the screen and during the printing process, insofar as it is possible. It must withstand the chemical agents and maintain good dimensional stability. It may be made of wood, metal, aluminum or steel. There is also a “Retensionable” type”.
FIBRILLATION: Fibrillation in screen printing is when the fibers of a fabric stick through the ink deposit, giving a faded or even hairy look of the fabric surface.
GHOST IMAGE: Vague image of the design which remains on the screen mesh after having been reclaimed.
HALF-TONE OR “NETWORK”: Image in which different tones are obtained by dots of different sizes and concentrations according to the amount of light or shade of the areas represented.
HAND: This refers to how the print feels in your hand. Soft-hand means you can’t feel the print; harsh (or hard) hand means you feel the print or the print feels stiff/thick, etc.
HEAT CURING: Application of heat to textile printing to obtain polymerization of the ink. Its parameters are temperature and time.
LIGHT FAST: Fade resistant
LPI: Lines per inch; lines formed by rows of dots on an original, a film or a print. The number of lines in one inch are counted.
MATRIX: Image recorded on a screen by means of a photolith, which enables the passage through it, of the silkscreen inks, it comprises two zones: printed and unprinted.
MESH: Precision woven fabric that is stretched on a frame.
MESH COUNT: The number of threads per inch. A fabric with a mesh count of 195 would have 195 threads per inch.
MESH MARK: A visable difference in the level of ink deposit on the substrate, usually caused by lack of break away.
MIGRATION: The movement of ink into another ink, coating, or substrate causing unwanted color change, caused by a reaction between the ink and the fabric dyes, or could be from the fabric fibers to the printing or from the printing to the fibers. This phenomenon also occurs between coats of different inks.
MISREGISTRATION: An incorrectly positioned image during printing or finishing; or the failure to be properly registered, one color imprint to another.
MOIRÉ: An undesirable optical pattern that occurs when one regular set of parallel lines or dots crosses another set, at various angles of intersection or by the regular pattern of mesh threads intersecting the halftone screen pattern. This problem is more acute when the number of threads per cm of the mesh is a multiple of the number of dots per cm of the half-tone network. There is a series of methods for reducing this problem.
NEWTON: A measurement of deflection used to measure the tension of screen mesh (fabric). Always check for manufacturers recommend tension.
OFF CONTACT: The distance between the screen bottom and the substrate. See Break Away.
OPACITY: Light blocking. An opaque ink film will not allow light to pass through a transparent substrate, or allow the color of the substrate to be seen through the ink.
PHOTOGRAPHIC EMULSION: Product which, on being mixed with a sensitizer, will be used for recovering and recording screens by the direct die-cast method.
PHOTOLITH: Transparent material containing the graphic that serves for the preparation of silk screening frames. It must be prepared directly, that is to say looking from above the emulsified side. The photoliths may be manual, photographic or digital. The sheets on which it is made must be the most transparent possible.
PIGMENTS: The part of ink that gives it its color. Pigments are particles that can't be dissolved in a solvent or water.
POLYMERIZATION: Chemical reaction initiated by a catalyst, heat or light, consisting of the chemical union of two or more molecules, to form bigger and more complex molecules, obtaining a compound with improved characteristics of cohesion, adhesion, stability and resistance.
PRE-DRYING: Partial drying of a printing before printing the next color or total drying.
PRESSURE: The amount of vertical force required to pass the ink from the screen mesh to the support.
4COLOR/QUADRA COLOR (QUADRA-CHROMIC): Reproduction process using dots that, using only four colors (cyan, yellow, magenta, and black), succeeds in printing the optical illusion of possessing all other colors in the spectrum.
READY FOR USE: In relation to inks, this means the ink can be printed without the addition of another ingredient. A common example of inks that are not ready for use would be air-dry epoxy inks that must have a catalyst added for the ink to cure.
RECLAIMING: 1) The process of removing the emulsion, ink and stencil from the screen mesh after a printing in order to obtain a clean screen for preparing another screen mesh. 2) The process of cleaning used solvent to obtain a reusable product.
RECLAIMING SOLUTION: Liquid chemical product, gel or paste used to remove a screen printing film or emulsion from screen mesh to make the mesh useful again.
RZ FACTOR: A measure of the smoothness of the emulsion on the print side of the screen. The smoothness will effect the quality of the print.
SAWTOOTH: A stairstep appearance on the edges of a screen print; the effect of stencil material that conforms to the threads of a screen printing mesh rather than the contours of the design on the film positive from which the stencil is produced. The main reason: the coat is too thin. To avoid this, it is recommended to use a multiple damp, over-damp emulsifier or after drying, emulsify once again on the frame print face.
SCREEN: This is the combination of a screen mesh and its tensioning support frame.
SCUM: Thin transparent coat of emulsion that blocks the passage of ink in a screen mesh. Can be due to multiple causes, mainly under-exposure.
SHADING EFFECT: Gradual variation of hue or tone of a printing, obtained by adding dots on an otherwise transparent sheet until obtaining another color. The mixing of different colored inks to achieve a gradual lightening of color is known as stumping.
SHORE HARDNESS: An international scale for measuring the indentation hardness of the material as determined by tests made with a durometer gauge or scleroscope. (Consists of a ball for deflection or pin point for depression into the material, which is at least 100 mils thick – Instrument manufactured by Shore Instrument Manufacturing Co., Jamaica, New York USA). The hardness of squeegee blades is measured in Degrees Shore. A higher number indicates greater hardness. The hardness recommended in serigraphy is generally 60D- 80D Shore.
SCREEN MESH: Technical fabrics made of polyester or nylon fibers. Polyester meshes, which are less elastic, are used for printing on flat or cylindrical surfaces whilst those of nylon, that have good elasticity, are recommended for printing on uneven surfaces.
SOLID CONTENT: Usually related to direct emulsions, stating the percent of solids is a particular emulsion. The higher the solids content, the thicker a coating of emulsion can be.
SQUEEGEE: Instrument consisting of a wooden or metal support with a flexible rubber blade used to force ink through the openings of a screen printing stencil when in contact with a substrate. The edge, pressure, angle, material, as well as the hardness, all contribute to producing a good final print.
SQUEEGEE ANGLE: Angle between the squeegee and the screen frame which helps to control the amount of ink forced through the screen. The usual angle is 75°.
SUBLIMATION: Process where dye pigments change from solid to vapor without passing the liquid state and back to solid again with the application of heat. In textile printing, the technique of sublimation consists of printing on paper with sublimation ink (Sublisol, Subliset or Pgm Subli) and then transferring it by applying pressure and heat (190-210 °C) for one minute. Printing by sublimation is only possible on polyester, lycras®, acetates and mixtures of cotton with a high percentage content of these fibers.
SUBSTRATE: The material on which the printing is to be done.
TENSIOMETER (OR TENSIONMETER): 1) an instrument used to measure the tautness of screen mesh in Newtons per centimeter; 2) an instrument to measure surface and interfacial tension of liquids, or tensile strength of solids.
THERMOCOUPLE: Used to measure the temperatures in the screen printing process using a thermocouple probe such as Atkins probe.
THIXOTROPHY: The property exhibited by certain fluid compounds to reduce their viscosity, when shaken and to recover it when subsequently put at rest, without having changed the temperature.
THREAD COUNTER: Magnifying glass or lens used to determine the number of threads (strands) per cm (or inch) of a screen mesh.
TRANSFER: Process of printing a mirror image of a design on transfer paper. The ink is partially cured, then transferred to the substrate by applying pressure and heat. Also called “textiles decalomania” or “printing by heat transfer”. Procedure which is widely used in textile printing.
TRANSPARENT: Something that will allow light to pass through.
UREA: Also known as carbamide, urea is an organic compound used in textile dyeing.
VEIL: Thin transparent coat of emulsion that blocks the passage of ink in a screen mesh. Can be due to multiple causes, mainly under-exposure.
VISCOSITY: Thickness or fluidity of inks. It is any property that determines the amount of resistance opposed to the shear forces. High viscosity means it is thick and low viscosity means is is less dense (liquid).
Orders may still go out on the same day if placed after the times above, as we always try our hardest to ship promptly, but it is not guaranteed. If it is after a deadline and you need to confirm same-day shipment, please call customer service to discuss your options.
|Series||Color||Width||Length||Adhesive Type||Tack Level||Solvent Resistance||Removability||Price|
|6321||White||2", 3"||110 yds||Full||Medium||Medium||Easy||$$|
|6200||White/Clear||2", 3"||108 yds||Full||Medium||Medium||Medium||$|
|6451||White||2", 3", 4"||60 yds||Split||Medium||Med-High||Easy||$$$|
|6451F||White||2", 3", 4"||60 yds||Full||Medium||Med-High||Easy||$$$|
|6476||Blue||2", 3", 4"||50 yds||Full||High||High||Medium||$$|
|RT-2000||Blue||2", 3", 4"||36 yds||Full||High||High||Medium||$$$|
|6221||White||2", 3", 4"||60 yds||Full||Highest||Highest||Difficult||$$$$|
Film positives are printed on Afford-A-Black waterproof film. Film rolls can accomodate image widths up to 1/2" less than their own widths. Choose the narrowest roll that will accommodate the width of your image (think about rotating your images or doubling-up images to minimize your film usage).
Enter your frame height and width in the appropriate fields below, then click the button that displays the mesh count you wish to use on your frame and your cost estimate will appear in the designated area below.
Yes! We provide Safety Data Sheets for many of our products.View our data sheets